Drag Reduction Can:
- Increase Pipeline throughput
- Reduce Carbon emissions of Main line pump stations
- Reduce Pipeline Operating Pressure (whilst maintaining throughput)
- Reduce Oil Tanker demurrage - by reducing oil transfer times
- Reduce Mainline pump power demands and consumption cost
- Avoid Cost of building new pump stations and pipelines
- Increase Flow capacity
- Decrease Transportation time
- Avoid Pipeline shut down due to MOL pump maintenance
- Bypass Main Oil Line pump stations
- DRA's can reduce drag by up to 80%
- DRA’s can increase flow rates by more than 100%
Drag Reducing Agent
A Drag Reducing Agent, alternatively known as a Flow Improver or Pipeline Booster, can dramatically increase your pipleline flow rate or be used as a Drag Reducer to decrease your energy costs.A Drag Reducing Agent (DRA) or Drag Reducer (DR) is an anti turbulent polymer chemical that when injected into a pipeline (where the fluid is turbulent) can modify the flow regime by reducing the frictional pressure drop along the pipeline length or serve as a pipeline booster.A Drag Reducer acts as a flow improver to pipelines that can either provide an increase in flow (using the same amount of energy) resulting in a much higher throughput, or alternatively maintain the same flow rate whilst using considerably less energy.DRA’s can IMMEDIATELY increase throughput capacity OR save on energy and costs.
Drag Reduction Agents ( or Additives) are long chain polymer chemicals that when injected into a pipeline (where the fluid is turbulent) can modify the flow regime by reducing the frictional pressure drop along the pipeline length. DRA’s can dramatically increase flow or maintain a given flow rate whilst using considerably less energy.The use of DRA in pipelines can either provide an increase in flow (using the same amount of energy) resulting in a much higher throughput, or alternatively maintain the same flow rate but with a substantial decrease in energy. The pressure drop will help reduce the energy requirements to pump the fluid along the pipeline and essentially save the pipeline owner more in energy costs that the actual cost of the DRA itself. DRA will only work in turbulent flow regimes; they do not coat the pipeline wall, modify the fluid viscosity or have any chemical reaction with the oil. DRA does not directly increase the pipeline flow rate (other factors must also be present)
The active ingredient in DRA is an ultra-high molecular weight linear poly-alpha-olefin. The general chemical formula for the polymer is shown in the figure below. The R in the formula indicates carbon chains of various lengths, while the N specifies how many times the unit in parenthesis is repeated. N may have a value of around 100,000 in quality drag reducing agents resulting in molecular weights in the tens of millions.DRAs are SHEAR SENSITIVE.The Long Chain Polymer will be DESTROYED by - Export Pumps and Heater Stations,The Long Chain Polymer will be DEGRADED by - several Elbows, Diameter Changes or T’s close together.
When DRA dissolves into the pipeline fluid, the polymer molecules begin to uncoil and outspread as they interact with the pipeline flow,This interaction is complex; the long chain molecules dampen turbulent bursts near the pipe wall as if they were acting as tiny shock buffers. DRA is usually injected into a pipeline just at the discharge side of the mainline pump (see figure below). A positive displacement pump capable of surpassing the line pressure is used to inject DRA into the pipeline.
How Does Dra Work?
How Does DRA Work?
When DRA dissolves into the pipeline fluid, the polymer molecules begin to uncoil and outspread as they interact with the pipeline flow.
This interaction is complex; the long chain molecules dampen turbulent bursts near the pipe wall as if they were acting as tiny shock buffers.
This dampening effect allows DRA to decrease turbulent flow and increase laminar flow.
Where is DRA injected?
DRA is usually injected into a pipeline just at the discharge side of the mainline pump (see figure below). A positive displacement pump capable of surpassing the line pressure is used to inject DRA into the pipeline.
Injection should be downstream of MOL pumps (elbows, T’s, valves etc)
QFLO - DRA Applications and Case Studies:
Crude Oil Pipelines - Including Heavy Crudes and High Water Cuts
FSO - Loading Lines - also Tanker loading/offloading
Refined Fuels Pipelines - Dedicated and Batched lines - Gasoline, Diesels, Heating Fuels etc.
Multi-Phase lines - Well Head flow lines and main trunk line applications increasing flow rates in Oil and Gas phases
QFLO has over 20 years of DRA Worldwide Experience in the following countries:
UK, Denmark, Spain, Italy, Lithuania, Poland, Norway, Latvia, Belarus, Russia, Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan, China, India, Pakistan, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Qatar, Kuwait, Egypt, Tunisia, Algeria, Nigeria, Gabon, Congo, South Africa, Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei, Papua New Guinea, Australia, New Zealand, Ecuador and Venezuela.
OFFSHORE Experience - UK, Denmark, Norway, Congo, Gabon, Thailand, China, Abu Dhabi, Qatar, Malaysia, India, Brunei
DRA Application Case Study 1:
Maintain Oil Flow Rate at Reduced Export Pressure
Pressure De-Rated Pipeline:
When the Pipeline Export Pressure has to be reduced due to either pump maintenance or corrosion. How can flow rate be maintained?
Actual Example --- 12 inch - 452Km - Crude Oil Pipeline
Export Pressure = 65 Bar at a Crude Oil Flow Rate 305m3/hour
Injection of DRA at 10ppm reduces the export pressure to 35Bar
Maintains the Crude Oil flow rate at 305 m3/hour
Injecting DRA at 3 L/hr maintains Flow rate with a 30Bar Pressure Reduction
DRA Application Case Study 2:
Crude Oil Flow Rate Increase - at same Export Pressure
Crude Oil Pipeline -- Diameter 10 inch - Length 155 Km
Oil Flow Rate = 160 m3/hr
Pipeline flow is at a maximum but operator needs additional throughput.
By injecting DRA at the following concentrations, additional throughput was achieved
18ppm = 4.4 L/hr of DRA resulted in:
Oil Flow Rate = 242m3/hr a 51% Flow Increase
24ppm = 6.5 L/hr of DRA resulted in:
Oil Flow Rate = 270 m3/hr a 68% Flow Increase
DRA Application Case Study 3:
Increase Production by treating Wellhead Flow Lines
Multiple Wells -- Oil/Gas/Water -- Connected by 4 inch flow lines to common Manifold then via a 10 inch 37 Km trunk line to the Process Plant
Field Production (Free Flow)
Gas - 42.6MMSCFD
Oil - 7480 BPD
Injecting 8 L/hr of DRA in a single flow line Reduces the Back Pressure for all wells connected to the manifold - including the gas wells
Gas - 45.8 MMSCFD an increase of 3.2 MMSCFD
Oil - 7815 BPD an increase of 335 BPD
DRA Application Case Study 4:
Designed Flow Rate: 160m3/hr
Original Pipeline MAOP: 6.0MPa
Desired Pipeline Flow Rate:
With NO Pressure Increase
Drag Reducer injection.
Oil Flow rate of 242m3/hr @ 18ppm
Oil Flow rate of 270m3/hr @ 24ppm
Other Examples have achieved:
a Drag Reduction Greater than 80%
Crude Oil Pipeline: a Flow Rate Increase of 50% @ 15ppm
Diesel Pipeline: a Flow Rate Increase of 104% @ 29ppm
Refined Fuels - DRA Application:
Client operated Refinery: 170 Km 10 inch pipeline to major distribution depot.
4 Main products transported
Customer Target is to increase the amount of Aviation fuel transported.
The injection of any DRA product into Aviation Fuel is strictly forbidden.
It was therefore decided to apply QFLO DRA to the other batched products, increasing their respective flow rates – reducing their batch transit time.
This resulted in more time available to transport the untreated Aviation Fuel.
An extra 12 hours is available to transport the Aviation Fuel.
Without using QFLO DRA
Maximum time available for the transportation of Aviation Fuel: 32 Hours
Resulting Aviation Fuel Batch Total: 10,700 m³
By treating the other products Premium Gasoline, Regular Gasoline and Gasoil with QFLO DRA
Maximum time available for the transportation of Aviation Fuel: 44 Hours
Resulting Aviation Fuel Batch Total: 14,740 m³
QFLO - DRA Supply & Support Services:
Chemical Supply, Applications, Handling & Injection Systems
High Performance DRA Chemical Supply - QFLO can supply high performance DRA chemicals that are tailored specifically for your needs.
Pipeline Analysis - QFLO can analyse your pipeline system to determine the benefits achievable using DRA.
Chemical Injection Skids.
Chemical Handling Systems.
Field Testing (Independent of DRA Supplier) - QFO can perform DRA testing on your pipeline to determine optimised concentrations and performance.
Audit DRA Performance - If DRA is already being used - performance can be independently established.
Injection Skid Design - specific to operational requirements.
Interface Injection system to SCADA.
Training Courses in the use and application of DRA.
Full Commercialisation and System Integration - QFLO can design a permanent DRA injection system interfaced to your pipeline control system.
After Sales Support and Backup - QFLO can work with you to ensure on time chemical deliveries.
The Oil and Gas industry is committed to increasing energy efficiency in its operations, with a goal of saving energy and creating a safer environment.
We offer a leading range of energy efficient solutions that can help your business optimize its untapped potential, saving costs and maximizing both output and production.
OPTI-WELL Well Enhancer:
With an increasing number of aging oil wells and shrinking oil reserves it becomes increasingly important to maintain wells and extract the maximum amount of product.
OPTI-WELL well enhancer can be injected into producing wellheads and flow lines to enhance production and flow rates*
Injecting OPTI-WELL well enhancer at the wellhead can have the following benefits:
Increase Oil production
Increase Gas production
Reduce Pressure Transients – frequency and amplitude
Reduce the severity of slugging
Stabilize Process Plant – (less process control room alarms, due to high pressure)
Reduce operating limits at input to Process Control Plants
(instead of allowing large pressure safety margins, these can be reduced because of less slugging and pressure spikes)
Unmanned Operation – ideal for offshore or remote locations
No need for expensive or high power demanding injection systems.
Basic injection equipment is all that is required (air, gas or electric driven)
*OPTI-WELL only treats hydrocarbon fluids, its performance is dependent on Well and Field characteristics as well as flow line and manifold design, there must be sufficient oil present for the chemical to work effectively.
Opti Well is a stable product ensuring a constant polymer concentration is continually injected - even at the very low dosage rates required in small diameter flow lines.
Chemical Injection System:
A small PD pump can be used for injection; this can be powered by electric, air or excess gas from the production well. Due to the small injection rates the pump will normally have a small bore; this makes OPTI-WELL the product of choice due to its stability, with no lumps or solids which could block pump check valves etc.
OPTI-WELL Well Enhancer - Test Results 1:
Test Results 1:
OPTI-WELL well enhancer was tested at a multi well oilfield application consisting of 4 Oil Wells and 3 Gas Wells all connected via various lengths of flow lines (between 1 and 4 Km) to a gathering manifold at the start of a 37Km 10 inch trunk pipeline to a Process Plant.
All wells were free flow with no booster or transfer pumps in the system.
Note that Well #6 increased production although no OPTI-WELL well enhancer was injected at the wellhead (#6). This is because the OPTI-WELL injected at Well 9 and 11 reduced the pressure drop and the subsequent back pressure experienced at the manifold junction. The resulting fall in back pressure encouraged Well #6 to produce more oil. Further production would have been achieved if OPTI-WELL had been injected at Well #6
Main Trunk Line 10 inch 37 Km
OPTI-WELL Well Enhancer - Test Results 2:
Test Results 2:
Multi-Phase flow line 8 inch 12 Km - Free flow wells (no pumps)
A signifcant increase of Oil and Gas can be seen in the table above by using OPTI-WELL
Quantifying the benefit of comparing the baseline oil rate with the oil rate at Concentration D:
Oil Baseline flow rate = 39.7 m3/hour
Oil rate at concentration D of OPTI-WELL = 43.3 m3/hour
This is an increase of 3.6 m3/hour which equals 86.4 m3/day
86.4 m3/day equates to 543 Barrels per day
- oil today (Brent Crude) is currently 111 USD per Barrel which = 60,323 USD extra - per day